Electromagnetic test systems and test methods

Products and services

Leading-edge technology for carbon textile testing, 3D inspection of electronic components, for test systems for process control and of large-scale industrial plants

 

Fraunhofer IKTS delivers electromagnetic test systems, components and on-site test methods for non-destructive testing of single parts as well as of large numbers of pieces in automated processes. The application know-how corresponds to electronics, software, sensors and manipulation.

Along with its EddyCus® high-frequency eddy current technology for carbon textile testing, Fraunhofer IKTS offers attractive license-based business models. In-house developed x-ray measurement technologies are available for 3D object inspections with very high spatial resolution. Test systems for application in process control and a non-destructive, low-effort micromagnetic test method for the evaluation of residual lifetime of large-scale industrial plants and buildings complete the electromagnetic test systems and methods offered by Fraunhofer IKTS.

© Fraunhofer IKTS
EddyCus® MPECS – system for imaging eddy current testing and evaluation of carbon fiber layers at 3D structures.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
For automated texture analysis of CFRP regarding complex 3D structures, Fraunhofer IKTS focuses on industrial robots among others.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
X-ray line detector L100e® for complex tasks in non-destructive testing.

Industrial sensor systems

 

EddyCus® MPECS – imaging eddy current measurement for the evaluation of carbon fiber layers at 3D structures

EddyCus® MPECS is a universally configurable eddy current scanner for fast process-oriented random sampling of (3D) structures of carbon fiber composites. The eddy current-based test method uses the electrical properties of carbon fibers for quality evaluation and works couplant- and radiation-free.

Besides single components, Fraunhofer IKTS delivers complex sensor systems with its EddyCus® high-frequency eddy current technology for carbon textile testing. Thereby, various materials can be non-destructively tested and monitored via eddy current, high-frequency eddy current and imaging impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range from 100 kHz to 100 MHz. The in-house developed EddyCus® platform is applied for e.g. characterization of the hardening process of epoxy resins or the electrical evaluation of ceramics. Moreover, metallic materials, fiber composites (CFRP), ceramics (SiC), plastics and other, even weakly conductive materials can be tested.

For more information on the EddyCus® MPECS, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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Texture analysis of CFRP at arbitrarily formed structures

Industrial robots are the core of flexibly applicable test systems for complex 3D structures. Unknown objects are digitalized by stripe light projection. It includes scan path planning and programming. By scanning arbitrarily shaped surfaces, simulation results can be compared to measurements regarding real components. For example, the structure of carbon fiber layers becomes visible by using high-frequency eddy current. This structure can be quantified by texture analysis of curved surfaces, e.g. angles between layers, lane widths, distributions or anomalies.

For more information on texture analysis, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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EddyCus® Wetcoating –characterization of the drying behavior of conductive films

With EddyCus® Wetcoating, drying curves can be recorded and visualized for wet, thin and weak conductive layers at frequencies of up to 100 MHz. Thereby, the final properties of conductive layers can be predicted while still in the wet state. Drift influences of temperature, measurement setup or electronic components are permanently compensated. Fraunhofer IKTS delivers an easily transportable device, which includes an internal sensor for determining drying parameters as well as a manual sensor for surfaces at a measuring distance of up to 5 m from the device.

For more information on EddyCus® Wetcoating, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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X-ray line detector L100e® – directly converting, counting x-ray detector

The x-ray line detector L100e® solves complex tasks in the area of non-destructive testing with an unmatched quality. It comprises energy discrimination, single photon counting, high resolution as well as flexibility and speed. Besides its actual application – the detection of x-radiation – the line detector L100e® can also be adapted to optical test tasks (process control, sorting, tomography).

L100e® is just one of the possible configurations of the sensor system. Other applications include very long as well as curved detectors. Moreover, special configurations can be realized for proving high counting rates.

For more information on the x-ray line detector L100e®, please contact:

Dr. Peter Krüger
Department: Accredited Testing Laboratory

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© Fraunhofer IKTS
Sensor line array for testing with high-frequency eddy current.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
EddyCus® electronics for high-frequency eddy current testing.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
Fraunhofer IKTS software solutions for long-term testing of the drying behavior of conductive polymers to predict the achievable quality.

Sensor system components

 

Eddy current and high-frequency eddy current detectors and arrays

Based on parameter studies, e.g. regarding novel materials, Fraunhofer IKTS determines suitable parameters and delivers customized eddy current and high-frequency eddy current detectors. They can be applied for in-line testing, role-to-role methods, grid pattern generation, one-sided free-form scans of curved objects or used as load indicators. To achieve a high test throughput, the detector arrays are individually adapted to the geometries. Prior parameter studies can be accompanied and verified by other non-destructive test methods in the in-house accredited test lab on demand.

For more information on detectors and arrays, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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Customized electronics

Fraunhofer IKTS designs and builds all components required for automated measuring procedures. Among them are e.g. deposited preamplifiers, multiplexers and circuit boards of the detectors (arrays). For integration into production and test equipment, the periphery of wiring, computer technology and installation materials are individually compiled.

For more information on customized electronics, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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Customized software – EddyCus® MPECS and EddyCus® Integration Kit

EddyCus® MPECS (Multi Parameter Eddy Current Scanner), in connection with a Cartesian test system for planar samples, and the EddyCus® Integration Kit, e.g. for the adaption to a robot, include a software for controlling the measurement data acquisition as well as the evaluation and administration of the data. Nearly all established interface specifications can be integrated. On request, database interface, user administration und automated report creation can be added, too.

For more information on customized software, please contact:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Heuer
Department: Systems for Testing and Analysis

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© Fraunhofer IKTS
3D image of a cell phone taken with industrial µ-CT.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
Teardown of a solder ball from the contact deck.
© Fraunhofer IKTS
On-site measurements for the analysis of the fatigue state of a bridge by Barkhausen noise.

Measurement and testing services

 

X-ray computed tomography and x-ray laminography

X-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT) is a computer-based imaging method for the generation of three-dimensional sectional images from raw data, which can be used for defect analysis. In order to analyze small sections of large, flat components, a new tomography method is applied. The so-called x-ray laminography constitutes a unique capability of Fraunhofer IKTS, as the test object is analyzed with high resolution (up to 2 µm³) and one rotation only. Comprehensive sample preparations are omitted. With the 3D data set, distances can be measured, volumes calculated and surface data of the test object extracted.

Fraunhofer IKTS offers x-ray CT with the following services:

  • Contact-free irradiation of materials of all kinds and geometries
  • Representation of the inner and outer structural texture as 3D data sets with a resolution of up to 2 µm³
  • Data extraction for rapid prototyping
  • Laminography for sections of flat components, e.g. electronic circuit boards

For more information on x-ray CT and laminography, please contact:


Dr. Mike Röllig
Department: Testing of Electronics and Optical Methods

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X-ray microscopy and nano x-ray computed tomography

For the materials sciences, energy engineering, microelectronics and biomedicine, Fraunhofer IKTS offers x-ray microscopy for the non-destructive analysis of structures and defects in materials or biological objects.

The process enables the investigation of structural as well as functional materials, facilitates in-situ x-ray microscopy monitoring of chemical processes in miniaturized reaction chambers on a microscopic level, provides detailed images regarding analyses of microelectronic products, or used for the investigation of biological structures by allowing substructures of biological cells to be imaged.

For even more detailed images of specific structure parts, Fraunhofer IKTS uses nano x-ray CT (Nano-XCT). With this method, the morphology and topology of the regions of interest can be imaged three-dimensional. Thus, nano x-ray CT supports e.g. the localization of delaminations and cracks after loads on composite materials, in the field of materials science, or the detection of pores below 100 nm in diameter in copper TSV structures of high-performance chips of the microelectronics industry.

X-ray optics are continuously enhanced by Fraunhofer IKTS. With the manufacturing of multilayer Laue lenses, which have already been successfully integrated into laboratory x-ray microscopes for full-field images, resolutions of 10 nm shall be achieved. Thereby, even smaller structures can be analyzed in the future, e.g. regarding ultra-modern chips whose wiring structures on chip level have arrived at dimensions of 100 nm and below.

Fraunhofer IKTS offers the following services:

  • High-resolution 2D und 3D x-ray microscopy
  • Investigation of kinetic processes, in-situ experiments: temperature chamber, chemical reaction chamber, mechanical micro DCB test
  • Imaging with absorption and Zernike phase contrast
  • Highest resolution up to a minimum pixel width of 32 nm
  • Acquisition and reconstruction of 3D and 4D data sets: tomography, laminography, image series and time-resolved tomography
  • Data evaluation, segmentation

For more information on x-ray microscopy and nano XCT, please contact:

Dr. Jürgen Gluch
Department: Microelectronic Materials and Nanoanalysis, Group:  Micro- and Nanoanalysis

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Industrial microcomputed tomography

High Resolution Computed Laminography (HRCL) was developed at Fraunhofer IKTS. This tomographic method is used to non-destructively obtain a spatial representation of internal and external structures with a resolution of up to 2 μm³ from materials with low density, complex components made of different materials and objects with high density.

 

By specifically adjusting x-ray tubes and detectors, the planar test object can be positioned near the x-ray source at full rotation freedom. The generated 3D data sets facilitate geometric measurements of distances, angles, arcs and surfaces as well as the determination of partial volumes in regions of varying density. Owing to HRCL, industrial µ-CT attains growing importance in many technical applications in the automotive industry, materials sciences, medical technology as well as fields like archeology.

For more information on industrial µ-CT, please contact:

Dr. Peter Krüger
Department: Accredited Test Laboratory

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X-ray diffraction for stress measurement

X-ray diffraction is the diffraction of x-radiation at ordered structures, such as crystals or quasi-crystals. From the measured diffraction intensity distribution, grid constants can be calculated and hence, the composition of substance mixtures determined.

In addition, the Fraunhofer IKTS applies x-ray diffraction for determining residual stresses by means of the sinus2Ψ method (sin2Psi). The sample is tilted into a reflex by a certain range Ψ (Psi). In order to obtain the distribution of residual stresses regarding the test body, measurements are taken at different points, covering at least the extreme areas, i.e. margins, corners and center. As the texture influences the results of many methods, also the sinus2Ψ method only provides reliable values if the analyzed layer is untextured. Therefore, pole figures for at least two different reflexes are measured at various points of the examination object. Subsequently, the residual stresses can be derived from the peak positions.

For more information on x-ray diffraction, please contact:

Susanne Hillmann
Department Accredited Test Laboratory

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Eddy current testing for defect analysis

The eddy current method is a fast and simple electromagnetic test method. A coil induces a small alternating field in the electrically conductive material. From the interaction in the material, surface defects, layer thicknesses and geometric properties can be derived. Resolutions differ considerably depending on task, geometry and material.

Fraunhofer IKTS offers eddy current testing with the following services:

  • Development, optimization, test and validation of new test methods including simulation calculations
  • Manual eddy current testing of components of various geometries
  • Eddy current scans, also with high spatial resolution (approx. 200 µm), of flat components
  • Testing for surface defects, determination of conductivity after calibration as well as layer and wall thickness measurements
  • Examinations with different sensors (absolute, differential), measurement frequencies of up to 100 MHz

For more information on eddy current testing, please contact:

Susanne Hillmann
Department Accredited Test Laboratory

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Micromagnetic testing – evaluation of the residual lifetime of large-scale industrial plants and buildings

Environmental influences cause materials fatigue in nearly all large-scale industrial plants over time. If exogenous overload is not perceived in time, the operators of ferromagnetic large-scale plants (power plants, public utilities, antenna and radio facilities or civil infrastructures) are threatened by failure of components or even the whole plant.

A permanent monitoring of large-scale plants has been time- and cost-intensive so far. This is changing due to the introduction of in-situ damage characterization for all ferromagnetic materials, which can be caused by cyclic or static deformation. Statements concerning materials fatigue, hardness, hardening depth as well as stresses contribute to a realistic estimation of the residual lifetime and enable in-time measures, like maintenance or replacement of the components concerned.

For more information on residual lifetime prognosis of ferromagnetic components, please contact:

Dr. Jürgen Gluch
Department: Microelectronic Materials and Nanoanalysis, Group:  Micro- and Nanoanalysis

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